Yet another article on 5G safety which I thought was necessary as those who voice safety objections are held up to ridicule as unscientific and irresponsible. Often the argument is put forward that 5G is safer than 4G.
The most important property that determines the propagation characteristics of radio (and micro) waves is its wavelength. Technical news and marketing materials about wireless broadband refer to frequency, but there is a simple translation to wavelength (in cm) given by:
More recent 3G and 4G wireless devices operate at higher carrier frequencies up to 2.5 GHz corresponding to a shorter wavelength of 12 cm. So, for 60Ghz you have a wavelength of 0.5 cm or 5mm which is a short wavelength. Such short wavelength has multiple problems with; 1) Directionality and 2) Penetration, and 3) Diffraction.
At 60 GHz (5 mm), the signal would be severely challenged to penetrate a paperback novel much less chairs, tables, or cubical walls. As a result, to receive full signal strength, 60 GHz wireless requires direct unobstructed line of sight between the device and router. Rather than going around or through an object the short wavelength either bounces off or is blocked by the object. Furthermore, small waves are more susceptible to atmospheric interference, especially at 24 GHz and 60 GHz, due to the absorption characteristics of oxygen and water vapor, respectively. They also do not penetrate well through concrete and low-e glass, commonly used in industrial buildings, skyscrapers, and many European homes. The mmWaves are particularly challenged by organic matter: hands, heads, and even tree leaves present unacceptable losses that must be avoided.
Now imagine signals bouncing off everywhere inside your home. At millimeter wavelengths, individual antenna elements are only 2.5 mm to 5 mm in size. So, they can put multiple mini antennae pointing (as it were) in different directions on your phone or equipment and even stitch the bouncing signals together with fancy software. Phased array beam-forming is another technique that can be used to overcome path loss. That means using a directed beam from endpoint to endpoint and that would need to be line of sight and probably for outside use. Due to beamforming, the very concept of cells and cell coverage areas will evolve in 5G. There are many beamforming scenarios where a distant line-of-sight beam may reach the user equipment (UE) with greater signal strength, while a closer non-line-of-sight beam is blocked. A modern CRAN (centralized radio access network) architecture can exploit this concept together with beam steering and beam tracking to provide dynamic signal coverage as a device moves through the coverage area. It is even theoretically possible for the RAN (radio access network) to implement coordinated multi-cell transmission to boost coverage to an individual device.
The argument is sometimes made that 5 G is harmless, after all it is low power density and only penetrates 5mm. One of the problems is that MMWs can be blocked or challenged by “a sheet of paper” or by “leaves” in fact the problem with short waves that are only 5mm is that inside a building they can be blocked by humans. What does it mean by “blocked”? It means ABSORBED. And skin only has an average thickness of 1.6mm.
Skin is the bodies largest organ and you do not have to penetrate very deep to react with nerve cells, white blood cells (also known as leucocytes) which are immune cells and blood (haemoglobin) which carries oxygen. And what about your eyeballs with an even thinner membrane? And what if they use pulsed directional beams? And what if they increase the power density? MMW’s are used for medical interventions and just because their effects are supposed to be localized and not oxidative (only causing heat) does not mean that it is harmless:
"Underlying mechanisms are still unknown. At the cellular level, it stands out from the literature that skin nerve endings are probably the main targets of MMWs and the possible starting point of numerous biological effects. At the molecular level, there is no acceptable theoretical model, except for the rotational dispersion of free water molecules. The energy of MMW radiation is too low to directly disrupt any biochemical interaction, such as van der Waals or hydrogen bonds. Only a resonance-type interaction might lead to an appreciable biological effect. However, the existence of such a resonance at the cellular level is still unknown".
State of knowledge on biological effects at 40–60 GHz Yves Le Dréan,Yonis Soubere Mahamoud, Yann Le Page,Denis Habauzit,Catherine Le Quément,Maxim Zhadobov,Ronan Sauleau [C. R. Physique 14 (2013) 402–411]
In 1994, a study was carried out in Poland to determine whether or not millimeter radiation impacted the eye’s transmission of light through its lens. They found that low level millimeter wave radiation produced lens opacity in rats: associated with cataracts forming. So 5G could cause human beings to develop eye problems and cataracts, it would seem. This one is difficult to find a copy of, although the academic citation for it can be found at “Chernyakov, GM and Korochkin, VL and Babenko, AP and Bigdai E. Reactions of biological systems of various complexity to the action of low-level EHF radiation No Title. Millim Waves Med Biol. 1989; 1: 141–167.”
In addition, a Japanese experiment was conducted to see whether or not the feared 60 GHz frequency band could cause ocular problems. It found that “millimeter-wave antennas can cause thermal injuries of varying types of levels. The thermal effects induced by millimeter waves can apparently penetrate below the surface of the eye.” This one is also difficult to find, but can be found at the academic citation “Kojima M, Hanazawa M, Yamashiro Y, Sasaki H, Watanabe S, Taki M, Suzuki Y, Hirata A, Kamimura Y, Sasaki K. ACUTE OCULAR INJURIES CAUSED BY 60-GHZ MILLIMETER-WAVE EXPOSURE. Health Phys [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2018 Mar 19]; 97: 212–8. doi: 10.1097/HP.0b013e3181abaa57.”
A 2002 Russian study that set out to explore the effects of 42 GHz frequencies determined that when healthy mice were exposed to them, they had a drastic reduction of activity with cells involved with immunity: about 50%. In other words, 42 GHz frequencies, close to the middle of the 5G spectrum, cause mice to suffer from immune system problems.
They concluded: “the whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity EHF EMR has a profound effect on the indices of nonspecific immunity.”
A detailed, complex looking but not impossible to understand study was published in 2010, about the very same frequencies Verizon is currently deploying: directly in the middle of the current Verizon 5G spectrum at 35 GHz.
The study was titled “Protein Changes in Macrophages Induced by Plasma From Rats Exposed to 35 GHz Milimeter Waves.” Guess what, it came from Texas based US Air Force Research Laboratories, and associated entities.
The study reads: “In agreement with this, prior studies conducted by our laboratory showed intravascular aggregation of leukocytes and upregulation of genes associated with immune cell recruitment and activation in the skin of rats at 6 and 24 h after exposure to 35 GHz MMWs at 75 mW/cm2until colonic temperature reached 41–428C [Millenbaugh et al., 2008]. Previous investigations also indicate that sustained MMW exposure can cause heating of internal tissues, presumably due to thermal conduction, and effects inperipheral blood cells and tissues distal to the initial siteof energy absorption.
A series of experiments performed in rats demonstrated that exposure to 35 GHz MMWs at 75 mW/cm2 for approximately 44–80 min produced elevations in skin and colonic temperatures and changes in heart rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure, with eventual circulatory collapse [Frei et al.,1995; Kalns et al., 2000; Millenbaugh et al., 2006].
In addition, increased levels of the oxidative stress marker, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), were detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes and neutrophils of rats exposed to 35 GHz MMWs at 75 mW/cm2 for 44–60 min until body core temperature reached 41–428C [Kalns et al.,2000]. Based on these results, we hypothesized that 35 GHz MMWs can elicit the release of biologically active mediators into the systemic circulation leading todownstream responses in cells and tissues.The ability to elicit effects in immune cells has also been observed for other MMW frequencies”
So the exact frequencies Verizon just unleashed are known by even the US military, to cause an increase of proteins associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Heating of internal tissues, that’s what the US military institutions admit 5G will cause.
Let’s back away from the research real quick and think about this with some common sense. We’re composed of water and oxygen, and we breathe oxygen. Oxygen is all around us. It shouldn’t take much more scientific information to suspect that frequencies known to be extremely interactive with oxygen would cause health problems in mammals, or even other life forms. They bill it as being a revolution in technology, but those risks simply seem to outweigh the benefits.
According to GreenMedInfo, who published a very well sourced article about 5G, 180 scientists and doctors have called for a moratorium on 5G, understanding it will be hazardous to human health.
The greatest danger of 5g is not even health related. It is that it will be used for full spectrum dominance. It will be employed together with AI to create a surveillance prison-state, a techno panopticon.