Galactic Electric Sheet

Galactic Electric Sheet

A number of short videos from SO (May 7- May 5) demonstrating the complete brokenness of the climate models that cannot model the future nor the past (paleo-climatology) making them utterly useless. You must decide for yourself whether they are just stupid or lying. Interestingly one of the videos shows that the sun is already feeling the effects of the galactic sheet.  In my book that means it is closer than we think.  I suspect we will not be waiting another 30 years or so and that it will be upon us before 2030. 

Climate Science Destroyed In 8 Minutes

 

Great Solar Change, Magnetic Universe, Big Sunspots | S0 News May.7.2021

Today’s Featured Links:

No Solar Flare Neutrinos: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2105.02458.pdf Heterogeneous Lightning Electric Fields: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2105.02818.pdf Solar Chemistry: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2105.01661.pdf Space to Ground: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2105.01871.pdf Magnets Twist Jets: https://www.nao.ac.jp/en/news/science… Crater-Scope: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/lunar-c… 2017 Hurricanes and Aerosols: https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12772 Bye Bennu: https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/13850

Sun Erupting Again, Impossible Nova, Climate Forcing | S0 News May.6.2021

Today’s Featured Links:

Climate Science Destroyed in 8 Minutes: https://youtu.be/n-W76C0kkwc Impossible Nova: https://news.northwestern.edu/stories… Global Ionospheric Response 1: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.c… Global Ionospheric Response 2: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/… Geomagnetic Thunderstorms: http://www.mathnet.ru/links/4f8f28279… Circadian Rhythm and Cognition: https://link.springer.com/article/10…. Heat Transport Needed for Warming: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.c… Auroral Phenomena: https://www2.helsinki.fi/en/news/scie… Solar Gamma Rays: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2105.01212.pdf

Galactic Electric Sheet, Higher Earthquake Risk | S0 News May.5.2021

Today’s Featured Links:

ISWA model is bunk: https://youtu.be/iyt45_2RcBA Current Sheet: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2105.01145.pdf Galactic disk: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10… Stellar Nursery: https://public.nrao.edu/news/new-look… Tsunami Hazard papers: https://news.illinois.edu/view/6367/1… https://news.unm.edu/news/earthquake-…

Bolide Fireball

Bolide Fireball

April 24, 2021: A slow moving fireball grazed the earth’s atmosphere on April 16, visible for nearly one minute as it traveled at an impressive 61,000 km per hour (37,903mph). We had had more meteorites thus far than all of last year. This is more proof that the galactic sheet is approaching.

Showers

Translation of the Japanese using Google translate:
Many meteors and fireballs of the Lyrids meteor shower flowed last night. What flowed from midnight on April 22nd to early dawn on April 23rd, 2021 This is a view of the meteor shower of the Lyrids meteor shower with a wide-angle camera facing the southern sky from Fuji. Meteors that flowed overnight are flowing all at once. Next, the Eta Aquariids meteor shower will peak before dawn on May 6.

Observing space from the moon

No problem, soon we will be able to observe space from our “Arecibo -like” telescope replacement on the moon surface. I wonder how we will maintain it? (lol). I suppose we have no “weather” to interfere.   Apparently a drone was inspecting a cable failure and then actually recorded the 900 ton failure of the receiver on December 1st 2020.

 

 

I thought it was down to James Bond or perhaps aliens….turns out it was just wear and tear.

It’s the sun, stupid

It’s the sun, stupid

My title is based on a phrase coined by James Carville for the Clinton campaign in 1992 namely; “The economy, stupid” .   Our weather is directly controlled by the sun that big burning ball in the sky.  It is not determined by what we breathe out, how much we fart or what car we drive.

Of course, that is an over simplification because the sun itself is just a spec in our galaxy and the sun itself is influenced by  “space weather” – clouds of gas, dust and plasma and far distant connections with electromagnetic phenomenon.   What comes out of this for me is that everything is connected and everything is cyclical. 

I think that some (but not all) of those in charge (behind the scenes because the politicians are not in charge) already know this.  Have a think about Darwinism for a moment.  Very gradual change brought on by selective pressure.  Now, I am sure that it does happen on a micro-scale….but the sudden emergence of new species out of nowhere?  Pull the other one.  However, now we see that catastrophism (once a respected science) explains  sudden destruction and chaos followed by newly emergent species.    The mechanism that changes the DNA seems to be linked to the increased radiation.  Magnetic excursions and reversals are intimately linked to a recurrent nova that both destroys and creates.  That probably explains why the ancients worshiped the sun.  As Christians we know that none of this is accidental or random and that God uses his universe to destroy and create. Some of the old world creatures will be allowed to survive and some will vanish….others will be changed beyond recognition.

Big Solar Eruption, Electric Geology, Climate | S0 News Apr.18.2021

Today’s Featured Links:

Solar Forcing: https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/jou… Tectonics over Rain: https://www.nature.com/articles/s4156… High v Low Lat Volcanoes: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.c… Spraying the Sky: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.c… Abell 2813: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/go… Superearth: https://www.iac.es/en/outreach/news/n…

Excursion Extinction Studies, Volcano, Space Debris | S0 News Apr.17.2021

Today’s Featured Links: Space

Debris: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Vi… SHIELDS Mission: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/… Small Stratospheric Injection: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/ima… Quantum Spin Liquid Fantasy: https://www.uni-stuttgart.de/en/unive… Not-Predicting Volcanoes: https://www.geosociety.org/GSA/News/p… Counterintuitive Stellar Growth: https://www.nao.ac.jp/en/news/science… Planetary Dust Ring: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/… Laschamp Extinction Study: https://news.flinders.edu.au/blog/202… Surviving Gothenburg/Younger Dryas: https://nature.ca/en/about-us/museum-…

Sun Waking Up, Massive Galactic Sheet, Disaster Trigger | S0 News Apr.16.2021

Everything Connected

Everything Connected

Today’s Featured Links: Fractal Frog: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/… Magnetic Event 430K: http://journals.uran.ua/geofizicheski… No Islands in Space: https://www.iac.es/en/outreach/news/n… Humans in LGM: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science… 2017 Pacific Acceleration: https://link.springer.com/article/10…. Deep Conductivity, Core Coupling, LOD, Reversals: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science…

Iceland Volcano Update! Increased Tholieitic Lava Flowing From The Mantle Expected To Last For Years

Long eruption is now expected in Fagradalsfjall in Geldingadalir valley (soon a former valley) based on lava chemical details https://bit.ly/2P7ozyG Volcanic Alert Level Raised; Cleveland Could Blow https://bit.ly/3fdUkRl Worldwide Volcano News http://bit.ly/2v9JJhO Soufrière St Vincent volcano (West Indies): lava dome continues to grow slowly https://bit.ly/3lRJEJc The Reykjanes eruption: a look underground https://bit.ly/2QJnVbf https://spaceweathernews.com/ Reykjanes peninsula – earthquakes https://bit.ly/3rprWPn Characterisation of rock samples collected on the 1st and 2nd days of the eruption – major elements and mineral chemistry https://bit.ly/2Pyh9nK Tholeiitic magma series https://bit.ly/3lTSO80 3D Map Of The Region https://bit.ly/3spUCZ8 Live from Geldingadalir volcano, Iceland https://bit.ly/3tV8URH Minor earthquake swarm on Tjörnes Fracture Zone (east of Grímsey island) https://icelandgeology.net/

Events Connect

 

The Plan to Revive the Mammoth Steppe to Fight Climate Change

I came across this video which is wrong on so many counts but still interesting. This is the comment that I posted below the video:

It is neither climate change nor hunting. Every 12,000-13,000 years we experience a solar flare (micronova) as the sun throws of the dust and gas brought by the solar system (Parker spiral). It is connected to the magnetic excursion that is happening right now. It is cyclic and is (for some creatures) an extinction event. As the magnetic shield gets compressed we can even get flash freezing brought on by plasma effecting the jet stream. Some mammoths were instantly frozen solid with vegetation still in their mouth. Methane is being released by cosmic radiation and increased piezoelectric and magma activity. Bringing back creatures will not work because the environment is not suitable. Everything is about to change. Prepare yourselves. They are lying about everything and using covid to lock you into smart cities. They lie about climate change. Grow zones will change and food rationing is coming. It will get colder. Wake up. Earthquakes, volcanoes, meteorites will all increase as we enter the spiral and the earth is re-shaped. 
https://youtu.be/Fy7iHlaOU6s (copy and paste the link in your browser)

 

 

Earth changes

Earth Changes

More evidence of coming earth changes and the approaching Galactic sheet. How long will they be able to keep up the lies? No wonder they are accelerating the vaccination programs.

Nearby Star Cluster Torn Apart, Physics Breaks, Galactic Sheet | S0 News Mar.24.2021

Today’s Featured Links: Australia Rain: https://gpm.nasa.gov/applications/wea… Physics Smasher: https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/21813… Solar Storm Current: https://warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/p… Nearest Star Cluster Under Duress: https://www.esa.int/Science_Explorati… Galactic Plane: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2103.12737.pdf

Polar Spring is from Volcanic Eruptions Globally

Media suddenly picks up on the term Polar Spring to explain the abnormal cold and snowfall events happening in March and predicted to last through April. Much of the cooling is from multiple volcanic eruptions above 40,000 ft across the globe. Other strangeness is that Monarch Butterflies are down 26% in migration numbers and Arctic Walrus spotted off Ireland and Wales. Look for delayed planting across the N. Hemisphere.

●▬▬▬ Story Links ▬▬▬●

Significant explosive eruption at Sangay volcano, ash to 12.5 km (41 000 feet) a.s.l., Ecuador https://watchers.news/2021/03/11/sang… Large eruption at Sangay volcano, ash to 12.2 km (40 000 feet) a.s.l., Ecuador https://watchers.news/2021/03/07/sang… Ash rises up to 9 km (29 500 feet) a.s.l. after 11th paroxysm at Etna, Italy https://watchers.news/2021/03/10/etna… Ash rises up to 10.7 km (35 000 feet) a.s.l. after 10th paroxysm at Etna volcano, Italy https://watchers.news/2021/03/07/etna… Pinatubo volcano Alert Level raised after 1 722 earthquakes since January 20, Philippines https://watchers.news/2021/03/04/pina… Volcano Stories https://watchers.news/category/volcanoes Volcano Report Volcano Discovery https://watchers.news/2021/03/11/the-… Eruption starts near Fagradalsfjall on Iceland’s Reykjanes Peninsula https://watchers.news/2021/03/20/erup… Massive dust storm engulfs West Texas, causing near-zero visibility https://watchers.news/2021/03/23/mass… Major winter storm described by NWS as ‘historic and crippling’ slams U.S. https://watchers.news/2021/03/15/wint… 2021! The highest number of major quakes ever recorded in the first 65 days of a year ! https://www.thebigwobble.org/2021/03/… The population of monarch butterflies that arrived in Mexico’s forests to hibernate this winter fell 26% from a year earlier https://www.thebigwobble.org/2021/02/… “POLAR SPRING” TO HIT EUROPE AS UK MET OFFICE WARNS OF 2000-MILE WIDE “ARCTIC DOME,” PLUS THE 45 VOLCANOES CURRENTLY ERUPTING https://electroverse.net/polar-spring… SPAIN SUFFERS COLDEST “FALLES” SINCE 1939 https://electroverse.net/iceland-erup… Global Snow Tracker https://globalcryospherewatch.org/sta… ARCTIC WALRUS SPOTTED IN WALES https://electroverse.net/livermore-ca…

●▬▬▬ Story Links ▬▬▬●

On The Verge Of A Global Crisis: One Bank Warns Of A “Biblical” Surge In Food Prices https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/ver… If Bitcoin Didn’t Exist, We’d Have To Invent It Right Now https://www.zerohedge.com/crypto/if-b… 29 Tips For Fighting Inflation At Home https://www.zerohedge.com/personal-fi… Bread Recipes https://artisanbreadinfive.com/

Star Dust

Star Dust

Take away….. interstellar dust increasing in our inner solar system is from space? If so, we are perhaps closer to a micro-nova event than we think.  A weakened solar output allows some of the interstellar dust and energy to leak into our system. Other planets in our system have been observed exhibiting increased coronas and atmospheric displays of irregular high energy charges and magnetic changes.

Galactic Dust Micronova Trigger Arriving? | S0 News Mar.7.2021

Today’s Featured Links: Pre-Quake Thermal: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science… Pre-Quake GEC: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/… Warming Scare, In RCP8.5 or Not At All: https://link.springer.com/article/10…. Zhao on Solar Forcing: https://www.mdpi.com/2218-1997/7/2/36 Mesosphere Echos: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science…

Dark and Hungry

Dark and Hungry

Sorry for the depressing title but people are sleep walking into disaster. Already there are blackouts across large parts of the USA. And the NWO is getting ready to deny people protein (meat) under the guise that meat is dangerous because cow farts change the climate and meat is unclean because it is full of covid.  Of course, the stupid people will believe this even as they shiver in the cold (due to global warming) and die from hunger (due to covid).  Lab made synthetic meat will never be a substitute for natural meat. They even want to recycle human waste as food.  That is what they think of you.

Truth be known they think you are stupid and wasteful. They built the “system” and are ready to move onto the next phase.  You are a useless mouth breather (wear a mask) a virus that needs eradicating. The virus they inoculate against is you.  A bag of germ ridden meat. They cannot stand the stench of the masses.   This clip from the matrix portrays their attitude exactly:

 

Fabians, Masons and Jews

George Bernard Shaw talked about being useless …….

 

A theme picked up by the Professor Yuval Noah Harari in his book Homo Deus with its focus toward humanity’s future, and our quest to upgrade humans into gods. So we have a useless class. Redundant humans replaced by AI and Robotics. If they refuse to “upgrade” what do you do with them?  Human beings are intrinsically valuable because they are made in the divine image.  However, these sociopaths value humanity in a functional utilitarian way. What use are you?  How do you contribute?  Such is the mindset of eugenicists and technocrats.  They will now proceed to starve and vaccinate everyone into submission.

Dark and Hungry

In the meantime the likes of Gates is buying farmland and establishing synthetic food factories.  You will be made to eat your own waste (I had to censor myself there lol).

 The reason for the Reset

David DuByne says:

The extremes you are seeing across the globe signal the amplification beginning of a new magnetic field forming in the outer solar system as our Sun decreases its output in this new Eddy Grand Solar Minimum. Did you notice the Level up in lock down with a 1750 Pound quarantine tax for entering the UK. This effectively shuts down global travel if implements across other nations. Another fingerprint f the Grand Solar Minimum fulfilled marching toward 2024. 

What David says about the planetary conjunction and magnetic effect is correct but there is more to it than that. We are also entering the Galactic Sheet or Parker Spiral. We will face multiple overlapping cycles so the changes will be truly epic (and not due to cow farts).

He is correct in concluding that they are front-running the crisis.  The analogy might be that a surfer sees a wave coming and rather than dive into the wave he decides to mount his board and ride the wave.  They are doing a controlled demolition of the system and producing deliberate food and power shortages and messing with the weather.  They are conditioning us for lockdowns and rationing.  They want a smaller, controlled population so that they can emerge from the other side of the natural changes as the gods of a new age.  Trans human.   Homo Deus. More like Homo StupidicusThe changes that are coming are not controllable.  Man will be shown just how puny he really is. The creator and sustainer of life is about to teach us a lesson.  Repent.

 

●▬▬▬ PODCAST Mini Ice Age Conversations ▬▬▬● Apocalyptic storm hits Saudi Arabia, covering the desert in hail and flooding arid cities https://strangesounds.org/2021/02/apo… Polar vortex breaks temperature records across Prairies – cancellations of schools https://strangesounds.org/2021/02/pol… 2021 in a landslide: Deadliest week of avalanches in more than a century in the US https://strangesounds.org/2021/02/ava… Giant ice volcano erupts in Kazakhstan https://strangesounds.org/2021/02/ice… Tsunami confirmed in Australia after major swarm of big earthquakes (M6.0, M6.1, M7.7, M6.1, M6.1, M6.4) https://strangesounds.org/2021/02/tsu… Smoke coming out of the ground around Mount Makiling, a dormant volcano in the Philippines https://strangesounds.org/2021/02/smo… Videos: Major M7.1 earthquake strikes Japan off Fukushima near the site of the Great East Japan Earthquake https://strangesounds.org/2021/02/maj… Saharan dust engulfs Europe and turns sky orange https://strangesounds.org/2021/02/sah… Unprecedented arctic blasts to deep freeze North America, Europe and Asia SIMULTANEOUSLY https://strangesounds.org/2021/02/arc… Covid-19: Travellers face £1,750 cost for England quarantine hotels https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-55995645 Red Hot countries list https://www.gov.uk/guidance/transport… Shikhzekhirli mud volcano erupts in Azerbaijan https://watchers.news/2021/01/16/shik…

Electroquake

Electroquake

Main Stream science along with main stream media is becoming more and more exposed.  These two short videos are recommended.  What used to be fringe and crackpot theories are starting to break through the consensus of main stream science.  You can only hold the truth back for so long.  Eventually the old paradigm collapses like a house of cards.

Whoever thought that any science that attributes 75% of the universe to the unknowable and undefinable “dark matter” was a good idea?  It is of course nonsense as is the climate science charade.

Solar System is Shifting, Magnetosense, Electroquake | S0 News Feb.9.2021

sgrA East: https://chandra.cfa.harvard.edu/photo…

Dr.RoySpencer Jan. Temp: https://www.drroyspencer.com/2021/02/…

NOAA Jan US Temp: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/temp-and-pr…

Electroquake: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2102.03536.pdf

M82 Magnetic Fields: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2102.03362.pdf

Butterfly Eye/Antenna Magnetism: https://www.nature.com/articles/s4146…

Planets-Changing Links: http://www.esa.int/Science_Exploratio…

 

http://www.esa.int/Science_Exploratio…

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/nasas-i…

https://www.nature.com/articles/d4158…

http://www.science20.com/news_article…

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/…

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/…

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/ca…

https://science.nasa.gov/science-news…

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science…

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/…

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2005.09189.pdf

https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/ful…

https://baas.aas.org/pub/2020n6i102p0…

Confirmed: Earth Magnetic Cycle, Galactic Sheet | Feb.8.2021 S0 News

 

IMF Diagram: https://demonstrations.wolfram.com/Th…

NGC1719: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/go…

Top-Sky Oxygen: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.c…

No Sterile Neutrinos: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2102.02207.pdf

Missing Impossible: https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs…

Galactic plane: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2102.02856.pdf

Magnetic Cycle: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science…

Baking a cake

Baking a cake

Current climate science is like baking a cake without all the ingredients.  Previously we looked at cosmic radiation which is now peaking and about to diminish. There is a clear correlation between cosmic radiation and solar minima.  Every time we have a solar minimum cosmic radiation peaks.   Obviously sloar magnetism protects us. Follow the link in the tweet to make your own charts.

 

Neutron monitors have long been considered a “gold standard” for monitoring cosmic rays on Earth. According to the latest data from neutron counters at the University of Oulu’s cosmic ray station in Finland, cosmic rays are near an all-time high (upper, right) since measurements began in the 1960’s (i.e., within one percentage point when using the space age averages as a point of comparison). Data source: https://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/; spaceweather.com

However cosmic radiation is only part of the story, it is far, far more complex than that and we have not even mentioned UHECRs (Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays) a particular mysterious sub class within cosmic rays.   But there is much more because if our understanding of the universe is wrong (which it is; look at the nonsensical dark matter/- dark energy paradigm) then the alternative model of a plasma universe that is electromagnetically inter-connected accords a far greater role to the global electro-magnetic circuit and our connection with the sun and the wider universe.  All sorts of things come into play then, not just Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) not just cosmic rays and particulates, not just magnetic excursion, not just the global electric circuit, not just micro-nova or CMEs.   See where I am going?    Climate models that leave this out are literally “half-baked” and they are ideological driven not science driven or truth driven.  As Ben says in the next video: “The atmosphere of this planet, is entirely driven by the sun … End of story” …..

100,000-year-old Story, Light-Speed Solar Forcing, Pole Shift | S0 News Jan.25.2021

We wish the Observers good luck with their camp site and education center….it is badly needed.

 Galactic sheet

We are feeling the effects of the galactic sheet and so is our sun.  As we go through this cyclical phase our planet will undergo many changes brought on by changes to the global electric circuit and planetary conjunctions.  Our magnetic fields are being re-configured.  We can expect extreme weather (hail very bad lightning), increased volcanic activity, more earthquakes and asteroid bombardments.  The universe might even throw the kitchen sink at us.  That is what happens when you remodel. God needs to demolish before he Builds Back Better (see what I did there).  And the physical earth changes must induce biological changes. Evidence is emerging that cosmic radiation can alter the double helix.  Is this why disasters see the sudden emergence of new species?    I am sure it is all coincide, completely random and not directed by any intelligent design.

 

Plasma Petroglyph Cave Art Deciphered in S.E USA

People survive…..civilizations don’t.   Petroglyph evidence demonstrates this. The earth goes through cycles of destruction and rebirth.  Our Biblical story begins with the earth being without form and void and with the appearance of homo sapiens made in the image of God.  It does not tell us what came before but it does tell us what comes after.  Civilization as described in biblical accounts is no more than 12,000 years old and this is in accord with catastrophe cycles.  

 

Conclusion

Now you know why they are lying to you.  Now you know why they want to lock you up and put masks on you.  Why they want to track and trace you. Why they want to ration food. Finally, it explains why they want to change our biology.  They want to make us impervious to any  natural changes brought about by God. The idea is that we become self-repairable cyborgs. If they can control heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) etc then they can rebuild us, better, faster …stronger…  (…they are insane).

 

Pluto Atmospheric Collapse

Pluto Atmospheric Collapse

Ben asks the question ….can we forecast the sheet?   In other words…when will it arrive?  In the next video he suggests that we are already in it (hence the Carrington event in 1859) and that full engagement is not possible to forecast although in  the last SO video I posted someone proffered that Ben suggested three years.  Who knows?    I suppose it depends on the shape and density of the magnetic fields and the plasma/dust clouds.  Below the video I have posted a table.

Can We Forecast the Sheet, Habitable Moon, Cosmos | S0 News Dec.17.2020

 

I made this rough table showing the planets distance from the sun (in millions of kilometers) and the distance from the previous planet.  As you can see, the inner planets are much closer together.   It took 4 years for the change to occur in Pluto but we are already seeing Neptune react. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Of course, the atmospheric change in Pluto was blamed on its elliptical. The further from the sun the cooler it gets and the atmosphere falls to the surface as a solid. However see this:

This is the PDF:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2005.09189.pdf

 

Conclusion

We are facing the conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter on 21-22 Dec.  Both planets will be lined up.  Looking at the distances I reckon 3.5 years sounds about right. The inner planets are all very close to each other.   Who knows how long?

 

For the vision is yet for an appointed time, but at the end it shall speak, and not lie: though it tarry, wait for it; because it will surely come, it will not tarry.  Behold, his soul which is lifted up is not upright in him: but the just shall live by his faith. 
(Hab 2:3-4)